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  1. #1
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    Nissan DCi Tuning & Maintenance

    UPDATED January 2013

    Useful related forum links:
    Difference between DCi 112 and 136 engines in the N16
    DCi Buyers Guide Things to look out for Weaknesses



    This thread is here to aid and provide you with information on how to best tune your engine, but it might also be of use to anyone wanting to simply learn more about the engine. Please take special note of the turbo section as it tells you about the faults and weaknesses of the turbo and how you might be able to go about preventing future turbo failure (a common problem of the 2.2 DCi engine across the board).

    Based on my research of diesel tuning and information from other forums here are some things that can be done to get the best out of the YD22DDTi (Nissan 2.2 DCi).
    Some of these I've applied to my car, the rest are work/research in progress. I will also link to posts as and when I know the finer details i.e. the exact pipes and IC needed for that upgrade.

    For handling upgrades on the N16 please look elsewhere in the forums as they apply to all models.


    General Maintenance
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    Engine Oil information - http://www.almeraownersclub.com/thre...oil-info.39165

    ECU & Fuel Pump Reset Procedure - http://www.almeraownersclub.com/thre...n16-dci.46047/

    Threads of interest -
    http://www.npoc.co.uk/forum/forum_po...-lack-of-power
    http://www.npoc.co.uk/forum/forum_po...ssure-problems
    http://www.almeraownersclub.com/thre...-of-power-quot



    Known Fuel Pump Problems / Power Loss
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    Symptoms Ė Lack of power, P0089 fault code.
    Cause is often the SCV Suction Control Valve and might need to be replaced, along with a pump relearn done at a Nissan dealer (or use the ECU and pump reset procedure here for free!). Try the reset first as this might be enough to fix it without buying a new SCV. However we know that the SCV has been updated by Nissan since car manufacture (part no NA6860AW42B), so for peace of mind you may want to replace it anyway.

    Related links
    -------------
    How To Replace SCV - http://www.npoc.co.uk/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=63206

    http://www.npoc.co.uk/forum/forum_po...-lack-of-power

    http://www.npoc.co.uk/forum/forum_po...ssure-problems



    Turbo Issues, and Why They Fail
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    As with anything, good maintenance is key. Regular oil changes and decent oil will help prolong turbo life. Also allow the turbo to spool down after a run (once stopped allow the engine to run for a minute or so before switching off wherever possible). Don't rev the car hard on a cold engine; allow the oil to get up to temperature.

    The stock Garrett GT1849V 727477s were built with flaws, not helped by Nissan's mapping/boost sensor. Here's a bit of background to help explain those flaws. VNT controls boost pressure unlike a wastegate without VNT (like the GT1549 in the Di). It's designed to reduce lag and produce more boost at low RPM. The vanes are adjusted via an actuator that is controlled by the ECU.
    Click here to enlarge
    [video=youtube;Gc2awh0O0Bc][media=youtube]Gc2awh0O0Bc[/media]
    More angle, more exhaust flow onto the vanes, more boost. As the revs increase the turbo goes into overboost, which is detected by the ECU, and moves the vanes to a more shallow angle to prevent the boost from climbing.

    So, the problem was that the turbo did not come back from overboost quick enough. The ECU's original mapping and/or poor boost sensor caused this (both changed in a recall). This together with the turbo being built with too thin a turbine shaft led to turbo failing. The turbo overspeeds for too long causing wear on the bearings and warping the shaft. The vanes can then catch the side of the housing. For some reason only one piece of a vane tends to come off on impact, but if that piece collides with anything else, you see catastrophic failure.

    Newer parts have replaced the thin shaft so if your turbo is reconditioned then it's likely the shaft has been replaced. If the car has had the recall work done as well then it's unlikely to be a problem. Earlier 727477-2 models VNT could be set via a screw which probably didnít help the overspeeding problems. Later -5 versions did not have this screw and were set at factory. I've seen reference to new turbos being -6.

    The best way in my opinion to make the turbo stronger and more reliable is to make it a hybrid turbo. More reliable in a stock engine, and withstand the extra tolerances of providing more boost that's required to get a good deal more power out of the YD22 engine.

    Turbo Technics can supply hybrid turbos and can be trusted with VNT too - What's a Hybrid Turbo?

    See 'Hybrid Turbo' section for tuning options.




    Modifications / Tuning / Upgrades available to the best of my knowledge. I'll lay out the options (not in any order).



    Exhaust
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    Exhaust Recommendation Thread - http://www.almeraownersclub.com/threads ... ice.24110/

    -Turbo back mandrel bent 2.5" SS. Powerspeed in Kent £420 (expect to pay more now, as this was back in October 200.
    Obviously this isnít Diesel specific but this was the place I went to get mine done.
    -Phil in Stafford
    -MIJ in Birmingham
    -ProSpeed in South Wales



    Induction and Cooling (excluding turbo)
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    -HKS, K&N, Green, and BMC all make drop panel air filters.
    -BMC CDA carbon enclosed air induction kit, best used with a cold air feed £160.
    -K&N Apollo, made for the 2.5 Navara but seems like it could fit the 2.2 too.

    -Larger IC and pipes - http://www.almeraownersclub.com/threads ... dci.44111/
    This replaces all pipes and intercooler going from the turbo, to the hard MAP pipe directly to the right of the engine block. I'll be replacing this right up to intake manifold in future.

    -Water/Meth Injection. Devils Own, and AEM do kits. A quick Google to see the benefits here, and/or check out TDOC forums.



    Fueling
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    -Tuning Box. Diesel Power Tuning (DPT) box. Plugs right into the fuel rail sensor and intercepts the signal to the ECU and adjusts the fueling. I had this on my car along with the panel filter and exhaust and was doing approx 150bhp 240 ftlb. The power delivery was much smoother and gave a really strong feel to the engine. Recommended if you're not going for heavy tuning or want more power until you can do more later on. An increase of 5mpg on average was seen too. Paramount Performance £350.

    -DTE Systems http://www.dte-diesel-tuning.com. A tuning box tested on the Navara with great results. 171bhp to 215bhp with just the box and a k&n panel filter. Would be interesting to see what results you'd see on the Almera.

    -Uprated Diesel pump and injectors. Most likely from the Nissan Navara 2.5 DCi (YD25DDTi). That engine is 171bhp standard. Pump might be coded and not sure if it'll fit (likely it will though, both).
    Injectors we can use Navara injector tips or get the standard ones honed to a larger bore (seek Diesel specialist). Both will allow more fuel to flow. Something worth looking at if going for more than 210bhp.



    EGR Valve
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    How To Clean the EGR / Intake Manifold - http://www.almeraownersclub.com/thre...n16-dci.32237/
    EGR Blanking (but will throw up MIL light) - http://www.almeraownersclub.com/thre...51#post-448782

    Exhaust gas recirculation is used to keep emissions in check. It forces exhaust gas back into the inlet manifold where any unburnt fuel is recombusted, and reduce any NOX gases being expelled to atmos. It is also supposed to help keep exhaust temps down. The problem is that all the soot and unburnt waste that is inherently expelled by Diesel engines ends up getting stuck all round the inlet manifold. After a short while even, this can lead to a completely clogged up inlet, and reduced performance. I'm going to take a day and take apart the EGR system and inlet manifold and get it cleaned up.

    Blanking off EGRs is common and will mean you won't get clogged inlet manifold again in the future. Many have praised the effects of blanking it off. Because it is supposed to reduce gas temps it's a good idea to monitor these temps with an EGT gauge. You'd need to get a thread tapped into the exhaust (easier if you've got a custom one and have removed the CAT coming off the turbo). I'm going to contact Nissan and ask for nominal exhaust gas temps and will post them up so we know what to aim for and what level to set a warning if your gauge can do so.

    Note: Because actual blanking throws up a check light on our cars, you can just unplug the EGR valve (grey connector). This will also throw up a check light but just plugging it back in and it will disappear. If you keep it disconnected it's an idea to read the codes once in a while to check nothing else is going on!



    ECU Remap/Management Options
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    First off the ECU in these cars are made by Denso. These are notorious for being difficult to crack and therefore remap. This is why the options don't just simply list 'get a remap', otherwise that's what I'd say.

    -Remap of the Denso ECU. RS Tuning in Leeds have this ability Ė http://www.rstuning.co.uk/. 100% trust and respect given to Paul there who can work his magic on this engine. This is who I've gone to for mine.

    -A few other tuners have the ability to remap this ECU now so keep an eye out.

    -Dastek Unichip Q with remap - Piggyback ECU supplied, fitted and remapped. Expect to pay anything from £450 to £750, depending on who you go to. A list of suppliers is available on the Dastek website. Other piggy-back ECUs are avilable but I can't comment on any type of piggy-back ECU or as to how well it would work on our car.

    -Stand alone ECU (expensive but comprehensive fine tuning, option for all out performance if you have the budget).



    Hybrid Turbo
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    Most of us know about the short falls of the Garrett 727477 turbo. With these problems you would be less inclined to run more boost through it. It seems even on a standard map they are likely to blow up with Primeras, X-Trails and Almeras alike sometimes going through a turbo every year!

    A Hybrid Turbo is designed to be stronger and more efficient. Bigger bearings and a super accurately balanced shaft and turbine/compressor wheel allow the turbo to operate reliably, and cut back vanes with a machined housing improve gas flow.

    Give this treatment to a GT1849V 727477 and you're on to a winner. Turbo Technics are the people to take this on and they do a superb job at that. The unit is a direct fit as the exterior of the housing isnít changed in any way. Whether you're tuning your DCi or simply looking for a more reliable solution and/or a replacement turbo I can't recommend this product highly enough. Don't buy twice with a refurbished standard unit or even a new one from Nissan.

    After the turbo is fitted you'll notice and improvement in drive. The turbo is much more responsive and gives a more confident feel even from 1000rpm, and you'll find MPG improved all round, especially on longer runs.

    Part Number: See Turbo Catalogue on their website.
    Fitment: Direct fit, no modifications required.
    Cost: £550 approx.

    Tel: 01604 705050
    http://www.turbotechnics.com/





    When fitting a new turbo it's recommended that you replace the relevant gaskets and studs/nuts (especially the oil feed gasket, it can leak otherwise). Oil feed hard pipe should be replaced too.



    Clutch
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    UK clutch upgrades are limited, and so far only Black Diamond make one, but it's quite expensive and the upgrade is not huge. There are OEM equivalent ones by Sachs, Exedy, Black Diamond again and LuK.
    The stock Nissan clutch seems very strong and hold fine until it starts to wear then anything above 320lbft it starts to slip in the high gears under load.
    Here's some specs of the standard clutch for the DCi from Exedy's website, and what else those parts are used in:

    Click here to enlargeClick here to enlarge

    Shared Specs: Skyline RB25DE, 300ZX VG30DE, Maxima/QX VG30DE, Silvia FJ20T, Terrano TD27T. While both the pressure plate and discs are the same specs I only assume they're not the same part number because of different strengths, and having sprung clutch discs while the DCi does not.

    So to take more than 320lbft and for longevity, we can turn to ACT Clutches. I've discovered that this combo will fit the DCi flywheel. Clutches made for the Skyline GTS-T 2.5 (RB25) and N/A 300ZX (vG30DE).

    ACT Pressure Plate: Heavy Duty N013 = 410lbft, Xtreme N013X = 490lbft both when used with street full face disc.
    Clutch Disc: LuK or Sachs OEM replacement. ACT custom uprated replacement which I'm working on getting made, or use a UK clutch specialist to re-material the rigid OEM disc.
    ACT Rigid Puk Clutch Disc holds more torque but is less easy to drive for street: with Heavy Duty plate = 4/6 puk 525lbft, with Xtreme plate = 4/6 puk 630lbft.

    This is all to be used with the standard Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF). If you choose to go solid or single mass flywheel (only a custom option at this stage) then you can use a sprung clutch disc. The ACT sprung disc can be bought as a kit with that same pressure plate: NS3-XTSS. But there is still question over how noisy and harsh converting to a single mass fly would have on this Diesel. VAG tuners have found it to be very bad and noisy and very unrefined so not great if you use daily, but it's anyone's guess how the YD22 will behave so knock yourselves out if you're willing to trial it.

    ACT can be bought from eBay International, Apex Performance (UK), SRB Power, etc.



    Transmission/Gearbox
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    The YD22DDTi (DCi 136) has a 6 speed manual gearbox (RS6F51R). It comes with an open differential. With more torque and power youíre going to start spinning up the wheel that has least traction. Powering out of corners often makes the inside wheel spin up. To distribute the power evenly an LSD is used. In Europe we have no such option.

    In the US the B15 Sentra SE-R SpecV (QR25DE) has the same gearbox (RS6F51H), albeit different ratios. This comes with an HLSD (Helical Limited Slip Differential) This transmission is used in the A33 Maxima with the VQ30 engine, coming in tow types; RS6F51V fitted with a viscous LSD (VLSD), and also with a non-LSD type just like the DCi's, the RS6F51A.

    Helical = gear driven, holds under harsh conditions, engages instantly
    Viscous = fluid driven, overheats when pushed hard, takes a while to engage

    The differentials are interchangeable and the one to go for is the Sentra's HLSD. There are however differences between the YD22 and QR25 driveshaft setup as noted below:
    Sentra QR25DE - Inner CV 29 spline, Outer CV 27 spline.
    Almera YD22 - Inner CV 39 spline, Outer CV 27 spline.
    Lucky the inner splines is the only difference and the lengths are the same. This difference is the only thing I can tell that makes it an 'R' in the transmission code.

    Differential Part Number: 38411-8U010

    Can be bought new from Nissan US, Courtesy Nissan Parts, or used from B15Sentra.net or eBay US.

    You can of course also buy a whole transmission from eBay or B15Sentra.net from someone and rip out the diff but shipping would be crazy.


    TRANSMISSION REFERENCE MATERIAL
    ------------------


    Differential Close-Ups

    N16 RS6F51R


    A33 RS6F51A


    B15 RS6F51H


    Reference: Maxima 5 gen LSD work - http://forums.maxima.org/5th-generat...nsmission.html

    http://www.nissanclub.com/forums/eng...p-painful.html

    YD22 DCi__________________________________QR25 SpecV
    Click here to enlarge Click here to enlarge

    Click here to enlarge Click here to enlarge

    YD22 DCi Open Diff
    Click here to enlarge

    QR25 SpeV Open Diff
    Click here to enlarge

    QR25 SepcV HSLD
    Click here to enlarge
    Click here to enlarge

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  2. #2
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    Re: Nissan DCi Tuning & Maintenance

    Superb, and very informative read Ed... you should make this a sticky!

    JP
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  3. #3
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    Re: Nissan DCi Tuning & Maintenance

    Excellent, you found the gearbox model. Do you know the final drive ratio of the YD22 box?

  4. #4
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    Re: Nissan DCi Tuning & Maintenance

    verry good write up,
    i'm highly interessted what i'll be like once the turbo is in Click here to enlarge
    Why can't i get my JTD with the Sound of the Busso V6?

  5. #5
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    Re: Nissan DCi Tuning & Maintenance

    I found online the factory performance figures for YD22 powered european nissans. Both the 82kw non intercooled and the 100kw intercooled versions. I presume it's the Almera, there is no model or year mentioned.
    This spreadsheet has the gear ratios, drag coefficients, top speeds and acceleration times / braking distances for the YD22 and the QG18 models.

    The 82kw version claims 0-100 in 12.2 seconds.
    100kw is 10.6 seconds
    QG18 manual is 12.7 seconds
    QG18 auto is 14.2 seconds.

    Interestingly enough, the shopping trolley I also own is a QG18 powered automatic, I think I can do 0-100 in about 13 seconds in that. Non turbo YD22 is currently around 26 seconds.

  6. #6
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    Re: Nissan DCi Tuning & Maintenance

    Hi guys i hope someone can help or point me in the right direction before i set light to the car....

    My dad has a Primera 2.2 which originally had a YD22DDT engine in it. the timing chain snapped and he took it into his local garage who sourced second hand engine and said they'd fit it for him.
    He paid them £1200 in total then told him to collect the car and it had an injector/nats problem and wouldn't start

    He then took it to nissan who said it didn't but as they didn't do the work they wouldn't investigate it so he towed it home and its sat there for a few month and brought a cheap car to use.

    So im now trying to sort it out for him, im handy-ish with cars.

    on looking at the car, it cranks but just isn't firing (sound like its not getting fuel, fuel is being pumped around) the engine they have put in it is a YD22DDTI so i'd say that's the cause of the problem.

    The original garage doesn't want to know anything about it saying they just fitted the engine my dad got (which they found and he just paid for it) they said the engine came with no fuel pump etc so the other parts in the car are the original parts except the engine.

    Is there anyway of getting this to work without replacing the engine with a YD22DDT??? looking at it from a novice point of view, it seems to me that the fuel pressure or something is wrong if i put a fuel pump from a YD22DDTI in it would it work???

    Thanks in advance for any help or light you could shine on it for me

  7. #7
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    Re: Nissan DCi Tuning & Maintenance

    The T (rather than Ti) might use a different fuel system (although I know the P12 premiere has a grey area with these compared to the Almera. I would recommend using a Ti Pimera ECU. Mixing types is always asking for trouble.
    Click here to enlarge

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  8. #8
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    Re: Nissan DCi Tuning & Maintenance

    so i'd need to change the fuel pump and ecu? thanks for the advice

  9. #9
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    Re: Nissan DCi Tuning & Maintenance

    I'll try and find out some more info but I think that may be the case to be able to keep your engine. Nissan would have to code the ECU to the car/locks too then.
    Click here to enlarge

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  10. #10
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    Re: Nissan DCi Tuning & Maintenance

    The DDTi is a VP44 rotary fuel pump, AFAIK there's only one type.
    Does it provide fuel to the injectors when you crank it? Crack off an injector nut and see if it spurts fuel.

    It's quite possible they installed the fuel pump 180 deg out, so it's squirting fuel on the exhaust stroke instead of compression.

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